El-Watan

Promoting Democracy in Algeria

Reservations Hotel

There was a time in which travel agencies, to define a sale, made a phone call to the hotel and reported to their employees, which recorded by hand first and in a plane in your PC then the chosen room and the number of days. The same thing happened with the airlines and cruise ships: for years, the closest thing to a reserve system was a drawing of the seats that are crossed with a cross which were being reserved. Precisely the airlines were the first to seek the help of information technology to streamline its operations. Already in the 1970s, American Airlines is allied with IBM to create the first automatic booking system. At the beginning of internal use, the company soon capto advantages include travel agents, who thus could instantly inform the persons concerned the availability of flights and tickets to the chosen destination. It was the beginning of a great phenomenon. To implement this system of reservations the tourist operations, he transformed forever making them more agile, safe and accurate.

Although initially their rapid adoption by airlines was more due to a desire to eliminate costs, eliminating the reservations Department staff, today really can be considered one of the cornerstones of the tourism industry worldwide. This first collaboration between American Airlines and IBM continues to speak even today, since it remains the system of reservations number one of the United States. His name, Sabre, reflects the initials of Semi Automatic Business Research Environment (semi automatic search environment). Direct competition from AA, United Airlines, did not want to be less and in that time created its own reservation system, named Apollo. At the same time, on the other side of the Atlantic, British Airways joined smaller companies to launch Galileo, which would eventually merge with Apollo. The system of reservations number one in Europe, however, is the so-called Amadeus, emerged during the 1980s, based in Madrid and born of the union between Air France, Lufthansa and Iberia. Delta, Northwest and TWA were the latest to join the trend, also creating its own system of reserves, Worldspan, mainly in use in the United States, but has not managed to unseat the leader Sabre. Original author and source of the article.

Central Bank

According to the survey, 60% of banks surveyed revealed that they have imposed greater restrictions for granting loans to large companies (85.7% had been recognized in the survey of the previous quarter), while 44% did so for small and medium-sized enterprises (73.7% in the previous quarter). Several entities have also increased their requirements for the granting of personal and mortgage loans (29.4% have done so for the first and 18% for the latter). As you can be seen, the credit market in Chile feels the impact of the crisis by the supply side. But also feel it by the demand side. It is an economic overview in continuous deterioration and higher requirements have caused a contraction of demand for credit. According to the survey of the Bank Central Chile, 47.1% of the entities noted a fall in demand for personal loans, 35.3% sees it in mortgage loans. As regards the credit to companies, 30% of the entities detected a fall in demand in the segment of large enterprises, while 22.2% has been observed in the small and medium-sized business.

If the cost of funding of banks in Chile has declined strongly so far this year: why banks are less willing to provide? Simply by the deterioration of the internal as well as external economic context which increases credit risk and requires banks to keep more liquid to avoid stressful situations (which can cause such large volumes of deposits output). What happens in the credit market of Chile is a normal behavior that occurs in situations where there is an increase of macroeconomic volatility. In situations of economic stress, authorities corrected their Diagnostics of risks and seek more conservative positions. Therefore they shorten deadlines and reduce the amounts granted. In addition, and despite the fact that the Central Bank of Chile has heavily cut its interest rate of reference (rate that results from reference to the rest of the interest rates), the Chilean banking entities have increased their spreads. This behavior corresponds by the increase in the risk premium that they perceive.

If the actions of the Central Bank of Chile are not achieving the proposed objectives: one can speak of mistakes in the conduct of monetary policy? One may think that the little effectiveness which is having the Central Bank of Chile in its objectives (towards mid-2008 he was incapable of controlling inflation and currently can not do too much to stimulate the economy), are due to errors in the conduct of monetary policy. However, what is happening is that the tool with which the Central Bank of Chile, is worth is not having the desired effects because in situations of crisis like the present, multiple factors influence negatively on the loan offer. In this sense, so that monetary policy effectively encourage domestic demand, it should be complemented with direct measures that stimulate the generation of credit. In this sense, towards the end of March, the Chilean President Michelle Bachelet announced further measures of economic stimulus including the mentioned facilities for accessing Bank financing (including measures to encourage mortgage lending) and measures aimed at increasing competition in the sector (where provided for increasing the capacity of insurance companies, which may provide more resources to the private sector). These actions to act directly on the credit market, together with others that seek to increase the competitiveness of Chilean companies, complement the effectiveness of monetary policy in Chile, in the short term at the time that in the medium and long term, strengthen the economy. They have these measures the expected immediate impact?

Scientific American

In this business – the model performs two important functions: creating value and profits. For the first of these functions, it determines set of activities that result there is a new product or new service that is created the ultimate value. In – the second business model provides value in part a result of certain action, the company that developed this model. In the second book “Open Business – model. IP – Management “by Henry Chesbrough is also new players in the market of innovation and introduces a new concept -” innovation intermediaries “.

Oriented companies to help innovators in a more rapid use of external ideas or help in finding additional markets where their own ideas to the mutual benefit can be used by other organizations, the author identifies as “middle-of innovation.” In other words, the “innovation intermediaries – a support organization of innovation that have arisen due to the development of intellectual property market. Their primary mission is to provide access to global resources and innovative forming a kind of global community providers (ISPs) of innovation. ” The first work by Henry Chesbrough, Open Innovation. New way to create and use technology is recognized as the best book on innovation, and Scientific American magazine named him the author among the 50 most advanced technologies and business leaders in 2003. In this regard, the theory of open innovation has wide response among the academic environment, and the third book “Open Innovation. Investigation of a new paradigm “was written by Chesbrough in conjunction with such scholars as W. Vanhaverbeke, C. Simard, J.

West, J. Christensen, C. Gallagher and M. Gludio. The authors conclude that the theory of open innovation is applicable both in the field of information and telecommunication technologies and the commercialization of agbioteh (agbiotech) innovation. As a general According to researchers, the concepts used in the theory of open innovation is not fundamentally new. On the contrary, the relationship the concepts used can be traced in several directions, as described in literature. The theory of open innovation is not only related to the theory of rational resource allocation, efficiency, operating costs and operating profits, business – strategy, but also builds on existing management practices. Many companies are already operating on the principles of open innovation, without realizing it.

Spain Eliminates Korea

The party ended tie to zero. ' rojita' it did not realise his better party. In the end it improved, and the result of penaltis made justice. The selection puts in the quarters of end of the match. Spain has eliminated South Korea after an eternal turn of sixteen penaltis and will be in the quarters of end of the World-wide Sub' 20 of Colombia, a competition in which is been on the verge of occurring one of the most unexpected surprises once sight the happened thing in first stage. It cost to him much to Spain to undo of the South Korean obstacle, that handcuffed the party throughout to him and until it counted a great occasion of goal to decide the encounter in first half of the prorogation. To those of Julen Lopetegui it appeared to them a ghost that it persecuted to ' Roja' during several years.

Penaltis before World-wide Korea of that welcomed the Asian country in 2002, the then ones in quarters of end. And their fears went off when Koke sent to stop third penalti and left into the hands of the rival throwers the luck of the shock. Luckily for the Spanish equipment, Fernando Pacheco became to Kim Young in the following launching very great and the companions of Koke were firm from the eleven meters until he failed Kim Kyung, in the sixteenth followed firing. Thus, Korea, one of the third parties of first stage, and Spain, of best in the starting of the flatter match and actualmentre, hope either to Brazil or Saudi Arabia in quarters, or in Pereira after rojita has taken leave today of Manizales, true talisman the time that takes in Colombia. Of beginning, surprises in the alignments. Julen Lopetegui did without Isco and the maximum goleador of the World-wide one, Alvaro Vzquez, and Lee Kwang Jong of its habitual attackers Seung Yong and Kyung Jung, the first first or second forward, according to what parties and the left extreme habitual second.

Assignment On Notaries Into Force

Land access since the 1.9.2013 even when possible for notaries. To the 1.9.2013 the assignment of voluntary jurisdiction on Notaries Act entered into force. Notaries have jurisdiction then exclusively for the official recording of the estate inventory and conducting estate and total credit disputes. Also, a notarial power of Attorney certificate is introduced as registration basis to facilitate the register and land transport. Finally, a country opening clause in relation to applications for certificate of inheritance was introduced, according to which the countries can establish the exclusive competence of the notary.

Another important innovation is nF section 133a of the GBO. So far, the land registry insight by notaries public only in connection with a notarial Office business was allowed. After the new article 133a ABS 1 S 1 GBO notaries may those who 12 GBO presents a legitimate interest iSv them, share with the content of the land register, even if not related to a certification order. For a real estate agent can be a legitimate “Have interest about then, if he acts on behalf of the owner of proven or in their own right” wants to research whether his mediation led to the conclusion of a purchase contract with a customer proven by him. On the communication of the land register, the notary takes a Protocol (section 133a ABS 3 S 1 GBO nF), what is to inform the owner or the holder of a same plot right on request (section 133a ABS 3 S 2 GBO nF). The land registry insight and communication an i.H.v fee to KV No. 25209 15 as well as the expenses for the retrieval of land amounting to 8. Land inspection in the land registry itself remains more cost effective (simple 10 or 20 certified extract).